Vol 27 No 2 (2018)

Artigos

BREXIT: CONSECUENCIAS ECONÓMICAS E PERSPECTIVAS
Jourdy Victoria JAMES HEREDIA
5-18
06-12-2018

O traballo expón as polémicas relacións entre o Reino Unido e a Unión Europea
(UE). Tamén inclúe unha visión para a actual situación socio-económica da nación
británica, como unha das principais causas proceso de saída do Reino Unido da UE
(coñecido como Brexit), a frustración da sociedade británica sobre a situación económica
e social desfavorable debido a políticas neoliberais aplicadas polos distintos gobernos
conservadores desde 1980 que tiveron impacto no mercado de traballo degradación e
maior polarización da sociedade; eo fracaso da UE na xestión da crise económica, que
custou unha década perdida no crecemento económico. Detallánse algúns dos impactos a
curto, medio e longo prazo de Brexit para o Reino Unido e da UE. Finalmente enuncianse
algunhas perspectivas do Brexit para ambos.

 

The work exposes the controversial relations between the United Kingdom and
the European Union (EU). It also addresses the current socioeconomic situation of the
British nation to anticipate as one of the main causes of the process of leaving of the EU
(known as Brexit) the frustrations of the British with regard to the unfavorable economic
and social situation caused by the neoliberal policies applied by the different conservative
governments since 1980 that have impacted on the degradation of the labor market and
the greater polarization of society; as well as the failure of the EU in the management of
the economic crisis, which has cost a lost decade in economic growth. Some of the short,
medium and long term impacts of Brexit for the United Kingdom and for the EU are
detailed. Finally, some Brexit perspectives are enunciated for both.

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TRANSICIÓN DEMOGRÁFICA E DEMANDA DE VIVENDA EN ESPAÑA. EXPLORANDO INTERACCIÓNS
Anastasia HERNÁNDEZ ALEMÁNcommon.commaListSeparatorCarmelo J. LEÓN
19-32
06-12-2018

O avellentamento demográfico e as novas estruturas familiares afectan significativamente
ás preferencias relativas á escolla do tipo de vivenda, e á escolla da zona de residencia.
Estes resultados teñen relevancia no deseño das políticas públicas en materia de vivenda a
efectos de axustar a oferta de vivenda ás características da demanda coa finalidade de
facer un uso máis eficiente dun recurso escaso como é o solo, prevendo unha maior
demanda asistencial nas cidades grandes non só por mor do avellentamento demográfico,
senón tamén, pola maior concentración dos maiores en torno ás cidades grandes.

 

The aging process and new family structures significantly affect the choice of housing type
and residence area. These results are relevant in the design of public policies, e.g. in order
to adjust the housing supply to the characteristics of the demand, so as to make a more
efficient use of scarce resources such as the ground and foreseeing a greater care demand
in big cities, not only due to the aging of the population, but also because of the greater
concentration of the elderly around big cities.

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IMPACTO ECONÓMICO DO PORTO DE FERROL – SAN CIBRAO: HARMONIZACIÓN DE RESULTADOS AO ANO DE REFERENCIA 2016 E COMPARACIÓN COS PORTOS ESTATAIS
Ignacio de la Peña Zarzuelocommon.commaListSeparatorBeatriz López Bermúdezcommon.commaListSeparatorMaría Jesús Freire Seoane
33-48
06-12-2018

As investigacións iniciadas nos anos 60 que tentan determinar o impacto
económico dos portos nas economías da súa hinterland fóronse depurando, e as
metodoloxías foron converxendo ata permitir realizar comparacións entre uns portos e
outros. No sistema portuario español leváronse a cabo importantes estudos de impacto
económico e, entre eles, destaca o do porto de Ferrol-San Cibrao, tanto polo carácter
pioneiro como pola diversidade de enfoques, como polas metodoloxías que se utilizaron
para a súa determinación. Neste traballo, considéranse os estudos máis relevantes e, para
o caso do porto de Ferrol-San Cibrao, harmonízanse os datos ao ano de referencia 2016 a
través dos coeficientes deflatores do PIB, e realízase unha análise comparativa con
respecto aos portos estatais de características semellantes.

The research initiated in the 60s in an atempt to determine the economic
impact of ports in the economies of their hinterland have been refined, and the
methodologies have been converging to allow comparisons between ports.
In the Spanish port system, important economic impact studies have been carried out,
including the port of Ferrol-San Cibrao, both for its pioneering nature and for the diversity
of approaches and methodologies that have been used for its determination. In this paper,
the most relevant studies are analyzed, the data are harmonized to the reference year
2016 through the deflator coefficients of the GDP, and a comparison is made in relation to
the similar characteristic state ports.

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PATRÓNS DE DISTRIBUCIÓN TERRITORIAL DA POBOACIÓN ESTRANXEIRA EN GALICIA, 1997-2017
Richard Daniel OLIVA DENIScommon.commaListSeparatorJosé Antonio ALDREY VAZQUEZ
49-60
06-12-2018

Os movementos poboacionais foron decisivos na historia e no desenvolvemento
socioeconómico de Galicia. A distribución espacial da poboación estranxeira nun territorio
disperso, onde predomina o carácter fragmentado da propiedade da terra, pode ser
determinante tanto para unha contorna urbana que tende a concentrar a este grupo
poboacional como nos espazos fronteirizos e costeiros onde teñen unha maior
representación relativa. Santiago de Compostela, como único municipio de máis de 50.000
habitantes con crecemento positivo da poboación -durante os períodos avaliados-,
representa un interesante caso de estudo sobre un fenómeno eminentemente urbano.

 

Population movements have been decisive in the history and socioeconomic
development of Galicia. The spatial distribution of the foreign population in a dispersed
territory with a fragmented land ownership can be crucial both for an urban environment
that tends to concentrate this population group and for border and coastal areas where
they have a significant representation. Santiago de Compostela, as the only municipality of
over 50,000 inhabitants with a positive population growth during the periods evaluated,
represents an interesting case study on an eminently urban phenomenon.

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A ESTRUTURA ESPACIAL DE GALICIA. ANÁLISE A PARTIR DO CÁLCULO DOS POTENCIAIS DE MERCADO A NIVEL COMARCA, 1991-2016
Jesús LÓPEZ-RODRÍGUEZcommon.commaListSeparatorGuillermo MANSO-FERNANDEZ
61-74
06-12-2018

Neste artigo analízase a distribución espacial da actividade económica nas comarcas de Galicia a
través do cálculo do potencial de mercado de Harris (1954) e os índices de Gini e curvas de
Lorenz asociadas. Os resultados da análise amosan un claro patrón centro-periferia na
distribución da actividade económica que no caso de Galicia convértese nun patrón occidenteoriente.
Este patrón ten unha alta coincidencia co trazado que debuxa a autoestrada A-9 que
atravesa Galicia de norte a sur, dende Ferrol na parte noroccidental de Galicia na provincia de A
Coruña, a Vigo na parte suroccidental na provincia de Pontevedra. Esta área que comunmente se
coñece como a dorsal atlántica é a área que, excluíndo as cidades de Lugo e Ourense, concentra un
maior dinamismo tanto en termos de actividade económica como en relación coa concentración
de poboación.

 

 

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EVOLUCIÓN NA XERACIÓN DE RESIDUOS AO LONGO DAS CADEAS DE SUBMINISTROS NAS ECONOMÍAS IBÉRICAS: ANÁLISE COMPARATIVA DE ESPAÑA E PORTUGAL
Soraya Ruiz-Peñalvercommon.commaListSeparatorNuno Marques da Costacommon.commaListSeparatorMargarida Queiróscommon.commaListSeparatorJosé A. Camacho
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06-12-2018

Nas últimas décadas a xeración de residuos converteuse nun dos principais
problemas medioambientais debido ao impacto que exerce unha incorrecta xestión dos
mesmos sobre o medio natural. Perante este contexto, foise propagando unha maior
preocupación ambiental na que a redución do volume de residuos é a súa principal premisa.
No caso da Unión Europea (UE), o obxectivo da lexislación en materia de xestión de residuos
centrouse na prevención e na reciclaxe para tender cara un crecemento económico moito
máis sostible. Porén, e malia os logros acadados, é necesario seguir avanzando nesta liña xa
que moitos membros, especialmente, os do Sur de Europa, aínda se afastan dos obxectivos
propostos para 2020. Por iso, o obxectivo deste traballo é aplicar unha metodoloxía Análise
de Ciclo de vida Input-Output (EIO-LCA nas súas siglas en inglés) para analizar o volume e
tipoloxía de residuos xerados directa e indirectamente en cada elo da cadea de subministros
das actividades económicas de España e Portugal.

In recent decades waste generation has become one of the main environmental
problems due to the impact that an incorrect management exerts on nature. Consequently, a
greater environmental awareness has been spreading so that waste reduction has become its
main premise. In the case of the European Union (EU), the aim of the waste legislation is
based on prevention and recycling towards a more sustainable economic growth. However,
despite the achievements, it is necessary to continue advancing in this line since many
Members, especially those from Southern Europe, are still far away from the 2020 objectives.
Therefore, the aim of this paper is to apply an Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis
(EIO-LCA) to analyze the volume and type of waste generated directly and indirectly in each
link of the supply chain of the economic activities in Spain and Portugal.

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O NON CUMPRIMENTO DA LEI DE GIBRAT EN ECONOMÍAS EN DESENVOLVEMENTO: O CASO DE ECUADOR NO PERÍODO 2000-2013
Luis Enrique SIMBAÑA-TAIPEcommon.commaListSeparatorMaría Jesús RODRÍGUEZ-GULÍAScommon.commaListSeparatorDavid RODEIRO-PAZOS
85-98
06-12-2018

Ecuador foi un dos países latinoamericanos que experimentou cambios
significativos no campo social e económico nas últimas décadas, converténdose nunha das
economías máis importantes da rexión. Por iso, resulta relevante coñecer as relacións
existentes entre o tamaño e a taxa de crecemento das empresas deste país. Este traballo
realiza a súa achega ao contrastar a lei de Gibrat cunha mostra de 25.179 empresas de
todos os sectores económicos para o período 2000-2013. Aplicamos o método
xeneralizado dos momentos en dous modelos de crecemento e utilízase como medida de
crecemento as vendas e o emprego. As descubertas obtidas indican que as taxas de
crecemento das empresas grandes son menores cás das pequenas. Ademais, a idade ten
unha relación non linear, xa que namentres que nos seus primeiros anos de vida a relación
é negativa, a determinada idade cambia a positiva. Esta investigación achega evidencias
para a orientación da política pública en países que se atopan en desenvolvemento.

 

 


Abstract: Ecuador is of the Latin American countries experiencing significant changes in
the social and economic field in recent decades, becoming one of the most important
economies in the region. Therefore, it is relevant to know the existing relationships
between the size and growth of companies in this country. This study accomplishes this by
contrasting Gibrat's law in a sample of 25,179 companies from all economic sectors for the
period 2000-2013. We apply the generalized method of moments in two growth models
and it is used as a measure of growth regarding both sales and employment. Findings
show that the growth rates of large companies are lower than those of small companies. In
addition, age has a non-linear relationship, while in the first years of life the relationship is
negative, at a certain age changes to positive. This research provides evidence for the
orientation of public policies in developing countries.

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DISTRIBUCIÓN DO INGRESO RURAL EN COLOMBIA E LIÑA DE POBREZA: 2004-2014
Brayan Alexander BARON ORTEGON
99-112
06-12-2018

Neste traballo respóndese á seguinte pregunta Por que no período: 2004-2014,
reduciuse a pobreza rural en Colombia, se a concentración do ingreso rural non baixou?
Para respondela, faise unha análise das taxas de crecemento das series de crecemento do
ingreso rural, distribución do ingreso rural, pobreza rural, o coeficiente de Gini do ingreso
e poboación rural. Logo de responder á anterior pregunta, faise unha descrición do
impacto da diminución da pobreza rural no período estudado, sobre algunhas das
variables de calidade de vida da poboación rural, para concluír que estas foron febles.
Analízase ademais a influencia do desenvolvemento económico sobre a diminución da
pobreza.


Abstract. In this paper, the following question is answered: Why in the study period
2004-2014, Colombian rural poverty decreased, even if rural income shares did not
change? In order to do so, an analysis of growth rates of some economic series is done,
such as: rural income growth, rural income shares, rural poverty, Gini coefficient of
income and rural population. After, possible impacts of the decreasing rural poverty on
some quality of life variables of Colombian rural population are described, finally
concluding them to be feeble. Besides, the influence of economic development on poverty
reduction is analyzed.

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AUTHENTICATION OF THE REGION AS THE OBJECT OF ECONOMIC SECURITY IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINE
Natalia IVANOVA
113-124
06-12-2018
The urgency of the research involves the need to define the procedure for determination
of the region belonging in the system of the regional economic security; depending on the
presented identifier (cluster).The development of discriminative models of the region
authentication is expedient to define its belonging to particular category of the regional
economic security. The objective of this article is to develop the mathematical models of
the region authentication in relation to the status of their economic security using the
discriminant analysis. The region identification cluster is the indicator of grouping. The
article rationalizes the expediency of using the method of discriminant analysis while
researching the regional economic security according to data of social and economic
development of the region. As a result of clustering of regions by social and economic
development, three statuses of the regional economic security were defined: “good”,
“sufficient” and “satisfactory”. The classification functions of authentication of the region
as the object of anti-crisis management for ensuring the regional economic security were
developed for the specified classes by method of discriminant analysis. The evaluation of
accuracy of the obtained functions indicates the expediency of their using. In addition, the
article describes the authentication procedure of the region as the object of anti-crisis
management for ensuring the regional economic security. The application of
multidimensional statistical methods while researching the multi-criteria economic
systems, such as socio - economic development of the region, allows exploring a large
number of indicators with different measurement units, to identify the homogeneity of
system objects. As a result of application of the discriminant analysis’ method, the
classification functions of authentication of the region as the object of anti-crisis
management for ensuring the regional economic security were developed.
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GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS, NEOINDUSTRIALIZATION AND INNOVATIVE CLUSTERS: INTERNATIONAL INDICATORS AND TRENDS OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Nina I. LARIONOVAcommon.commaListSeparatorTatyana V. YALYALIEVAcommon.commaListSeparatorDmitry L. NAPOLSKIKH
125-138
06-12-2018
The purpose of the study is to identify trends and future models for the innovative
development of Russian Federation. Paper deals with the innovative development of the
leading countries of world economic growth. Particular attention is given to
«neoindustrialization» of economically developed countries and innovative nature of
clustering of economic space. The modern factors of global competitiveness and economic
content of the innovative transformation of the economy is specified. Theoretical
approaches and tendencies of innovative transformation of economy are proved. The
authors identified scientific, technological, production, spatial-territorial and institutionalmarket
aspects of innovative transformation. Paper includes the differentiation of the
States-leaders of industrial production in the context of key indicators of global
competitiveness. The transformation model of innovative economy formation is
presented, the indicators of global competitiveness of the Russian Federation are
considered. The authors propose structural and logical scheme of innovative
transformation of the national economic system of the Russian Federation is developed. A
graphic interpretation of the transformation of the economic system of the territory under
the influence of innovative development is proposed.
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INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ON POVERTY REDUCTION EFFORTS IN AFRICA
Kunofiwa TSAURAI
139-154
06-12-2018
The study explored whether the complementarity between foreign direct investment
(FDI) and natural resources availability led to poverty reduction in Southern and Western
African nations using panel data analysis (fixed effects, random effects, pooled ordinary
least squares (OLS) and dynamic generalised methods of moments (GMM) with data
spanning from 2002 to 2012. The objective emanates from the theoretical view that if the
countries that are receiving FDI have abundance of natural resources, a large number of
the unemployed people are likely to get jobs, earn income and get out of poverty zone.
Three measures of poverty were used in the current study, namely life expectancy at
birth, total (years), household consumption expenditure as a ratio of gross national
product and mortality rate and infant (per 1 000 live births). Generally, all the four panel
data analysis methods produced similar finding: the interaction between FDI and natural
resources reduced poverty levels in African countries studied. Southern and Western
African nations are therefore urged to implement FDI enhancement policies which attract
foreign investors into the natural resources extraction sector if they want to sustainably
reduce poverty. Future studies should investigate other macroeconomic factors that must
be available in the host country before FDI reduce poverty in all its forms.
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A APTITUDE DO SOLO NA AVALIACIÓN DE TERRAS PARA A PLANIFICACIÓN TERRITORIAL
José Marcial DÍAZ MANSOcommon.commaListSeparatorInés SANTÉ RIVEIRAcommon.commaListSeparatorEncarnación NIETO ZAS
155-170
06-12-2018

O Plan Territorial Integrado da bacía hidrográfica do río Eume (PTI do Eume) contempla
entre os seus obxectivos protexer o medioambiente e favorecer a actividade económica
con criterios de sustentabilidade
Definiuse un modelo de avaliación baseado no desenvolto pola Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) no ano 1976, A Framework for Land Evaluation, para asignar a cada
unidade territorial unha destas 7 categorías ou clases de terra obtidas a partir da
tipificación dos 12 factores máis relevantes que condicionan a aptitude do solo na bacía do
río Eume. Esta tipificación cartográfica da aptitude agroforestal ademais de empregarse
como indicador da eficiencia na utilización do solo, (comparándoa cas dinámicas das
coberturas do solo reflectidas en series cartográficas como o Sistema de información de
ocupación del suelo de España (SIOSE)), empregouse para elaborar un modelo territorial
composto por tres áreas de ordenación integral que segmentarán o territorio da bacía co
obxectivo de facer unha ordenación e regulación “ad doc” dos usos e actividades máis
acordes a aptitude do solo co fin de optimizar a eficiencia do uso desde unha perspectiva
territorial e sostible.

 

Abstract:
The Integrated Territorial Plan of the river basin of the Eume River (PTI of the Eume)
contemplates between its objectives to protect the environment and to favor the economic
activity with criteria of sustainability An evaluation model based on the development by
the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in the 1976, A Framework for Land
Evaluation, was defined to assign to each territorial unit one of these 7 categories or
classes of land obtained from the classification of the 12 most relevant factors which
determine the aptitude of the soil in the Eume river basin. This cartographic classification
of the agroforestry aptitude, as well as being used as an indicator of the efficiency in the
use of soil, (comparing the dynamic cases of soil coverings reflected in cartographic series
such as the Spanish Land Use Information System (SIOSE)), was used to produce a
territorial model made up of three areas of integral management that will segment the
territory of the basin with the objective of "ad doc" regulation and regulation of the uses
and activities more in agreement with the aptitude of the soil in order to optimize the
efficiency of the use from a sustainable territorial perspective.

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A REVISTA GALEGA DE ECONOMÍA E OUTRAS REVISTAS DE INVESTIGACIÓN ECONÓMICA PUBLICADAS EN GALICIA, 2001-2018
María-Carmen GUISÁN
171-182
07-12-2018

 Este informe presenta as etapas da Revista Galega de Economía (RGE), logo de
cumprir máis de 25 anos de existencia, o que a converte na revista galega de Economía de
maior duración. Tamén incluímos información sobre outras revistas de investigación
económica publicadas en Galicia, sobre todo as enfocadas cara o desenvolvemento
económico, as publicadas no período 2001-2018 e dispoñibles na Internet. A sección 1 fai
unha referencia ás tres etapas da RGE: de 1992-1999, de 2000-2013 e de 2014-2018. A
segunda etapa supón un avance importante na internacionalización da revista,
especialmente a través da inclusión na base RedAlyc dende o ano 2000, e Ideas.Repec
dende o ano 2012, sen perder unha elevada adicación á economía galega. A terceira etapa
avanza na internacionalización, tamén a través doutros eidos en lingua inglesa, e segue
cunha intensa adicación á economía de Galicia e ao desenvolvemento rexional de Europa.

 


Summary: This report contains selected information on the Review of Galician Economy
(RGE), after more than 25 years of existence, which makes it the longest-running Galician
Economic Research journal. We also include information on other economic research
journals published in Galicia, especially those focused on economic development,
published in the period 2001-2018 and available on line. Section 1 makes a reference to
three stages of the RGE: 1992-1999, 2000-2013 and 2014-2018. The second stage
represents an important advance in the internationalization of the magazine, with its
inclusion in RedAlyc since 2000 and in Ideas.Repec since 2012, keeping a high dedication
to the Galician economy. The third stage progresses in internationalization, also reaching
exposure in English, and continues with an intense dedication to the economy of Galicia
and the regional development of Europe.

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